Harro von Blottnitz
Harro von Blottnitz
BSc (ChemEng), Cape Town, BSc Hons O.R., Unisa, MSc (Eng), Cape Town, Dr.-Ing. RWTH Aachen
Department of Chemical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment
Email: Harro von Blottnitz
The big sustainability lever in platinum mining: creating expectations
So, the WWF convinced us by 2002 that the planet simply wouldn't be able to cope if all of us Homo sapiens were to live an American lifestyle. And yet weÂ're surprised, even angry, that food, fuel and other resource prices are starting to reflect exactly that scarcity, now that another 2 billion of our species are joining the consumer class. We know that the J-curves must become S-curves, in some cases we need to back off from current practices by 60% or even 90%! While some of our political leaders are still debating development vs. environment (hello!!), our leading sustainability scientists are seeing a fair chance of self- extinction of Homo sapiens as part of the Homo sapiens induced fifth extinction wave!
What does all this have to do with the platinum mining industry? Of course thereÂ's the point that this industry is a big consumer of energy (and thus emitter of greenhouse gases). We also know that Southern Africa, where 90% of the resources occur, will become increasingly water-stressed. So significant systemic efficiency increases are squarely on the industryÂ's agenda. (Go Malcolm!) What else?
Well, in the last decade, the industry has moved strongly into the so-called Eastern Limb of the Bushveld Igneous Complex. Where the Rustenburg area on the Western Limb has become some sort of semi-formal city of one million people, in this Eastern part there are over 1000 rural communities totalling some 4 million people confronted with the arrival of the 100 year old tradition of South African mining.
What expectations are created? Business and technical folk appear in their 4x4Â's, executives are flying in by helicopter. Talk of billions of Rand being invested, and profits of billions being made. And what is THE identity of the industry? Pale metal on beautiful skin in luxurious settings? The epitomy of the consumer culture?! What contribution are such images making to the creation of impossible expectations? (Not improbable ones at all, some of the young generation in the Sekhukhune district might well get there: Impossible in the sense of environmental sustainability.)
Or could the image be created around the other side of PGMs: extremely useful industrial catalysts, that can allow radical improvements in energy consumption (fuel cell technology!), strong reductions in environmentally harmful emissions! What an opportunity to engage school children in their science and geography syllabi; creating visions of their involvement, their future.
A future of technical adventure (90% efficiency gains over todayÂ's technology!), built on connectivity with SekhukhuneÂ's earth and its riches, yet rooted in sustainable expectations of consumption: surely thereÂ's huge sustainable development leverage residing in education! But is the industry mature enough to fundamentally revise its external image and its view of itself? The challenge is on Â- and the outcome is a Âhand-on-heartÂ' contribution to a better, indeed a possible, future!
With acknowledgements to the incisive thinking of Jared Diamond, Joschka Fischer and Chris Moran, the advocacy of Jeffery Sachs and Al Gore, and the genuine intention of unnamed mining industry colleagues to do better.
Environmental Systems Analysis: here I study questions of sustainability of industrial systems (which can be product, process, or sectoral systems). My prime tool is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). I take an intereste in Industrial Ecology concepts, such as metabolism, and together with colleagues offer a postgraduate course which explores how these help to restructure industrial systems for sustainable development.
Fuels Processing: focussed on renewable and cleaner fuels. Biofuels are an example of the former, natural gas based ones of the latter. In a country where non-renewable, polluting coal-based fuels are extraordinarily abundant, the challenge is to identify where alternative fuel production & distribution systems can be competitive, then to engineer such systems.
Waste Management: this is the discipline in which I obtained my doctorate. It is a wide field, with issues in South Africa ranging from resource industry tailings, to adequate and cost-effective provision of waste removal services. Minimisation of wastes at source, investigation of hazardous nature, and recovery of valuables (recycling) are my areas of interest.
Looking for postdoctoral opportunties?
You have a PhD in Industrial Ecology or Environmental Engineering? Please email me if you'd like to consider a stint in Africa's leading Chemical Engineering Department.
Copies of these papers can be made available in pdf format or by fax; please send an email to Harro von Blottnitz.
Publications of Dr Harro von Blottnitz
1. Journal papers, books and chapters in books
'Development and Assessment of a Hydrometallurgical Process to Treat Steel Plant Dusts', H. von Blottnitz, M.Sc. thesis, University of Cape Town, 1994.
'Proceedings of the XX International Mineral Processing Congress'; in 5 Volumes; 310 papers; edited by H. Hoberg and H. von Blottnitz; GDMB Society for Mining, Metallurgy, Resource- and Environmental Technology; Clausthal-Zellerfeld; 1997.
'Eine neue Methode zur Berechnung des Verhältnisses zwischen Probemenge und Probenahmefehler in der Abfallbeprobung': H. von Blottnitz and H. Hoberg; Erzmetall, 9/98, p. 595Â-603; 1998.
'Untersuchungen zur Weiterentwicklung der Grundlagen der Probenahme disperser Feststoffe für Bereiche der Abfallwirtschaft': H. Bloch von Blottnitz; Diss. RWTH Aachen; Shaker Verlag; Aachen; 1999.
'The TCLP and Its Applicability for the Characterisation of Worst Case Leaching of Wastes from Mining and Metallurgical Operations': B. Cohen, A.E. Lewis, J. Petersen, H. von Blottnitz, S.C. Drews and S.I. Mahote; Advances in Environmental Research, Vol 3, No. 2, 1999.
'Anforderungen an die Probenahme von Restabfall Â- Ansatz für ein neues Probenahmemodell', ('Requirements for the Sampling of Residual Waste Â- Approach to Developing a New Sampling Model'), A. Pehlken, H. von Blottnitz and T.Pretz, Aufbereitungstechnik, 41 (9), pp. 409 Â- 415, article in German and in English, 2000.
'Environmental Assessment of Base Metal Processing: A Nickel Refining Case Study', P. Forbes, H. von Blottnitz, P. Gaylard and J.G. Petrie, SAIMM Journal Transactions, 100 (6), pp. 347 Â- 353; 2000.
'The Description of Solid Wastes by Particle Mass Instead of Particle Size Distributions', H. von Blottnitz, A. Pehlken and Th. Pretz, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 34/3, pp. 193-207, 2002.
'An overview of the status of Life Cycle Assessment and Engineering research in South Africa'; A.C. Brent, M.B. Rohwer, E. Friedrich and H. von Blottnitz; International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 7 (3), pp. 167-172, 2002.
'Oxidative Ageing of Chromium(III)-Bearing Slag'; K. Pillay, H. von Blottnitz and J. Petersen; Chemosphere; 52/10 pp. 1771-1779, 2003.
'Plant Biomass Conversion to Fuels and Commodity Chemicals in South Africa: A Third Chapter?'; L.R. Lynd, H. von Blottnitz, J. de Boer, B. Tate, I.S. Pretorius, K. Rumbold, and W.H. van Zyl, South African Journal of Science, 99 (11): 499-507 (2003).
'Functionality and Allocation in Multi-Product Metals Refining'; H. von Blottnitz and J.G. Petrie, in Dubreuil A, editor. 2005. Life-cycle assessment of metals: Issues and research directions. Pensacola (FL), USA: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC). 307 p.
'A comparison of air emissions of thermal power plants in South Africa and 15 European countries'; H. von Blottnitz; Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 17 (1), pp. 72-81, 2006.
'Promoting Active Learning in Sustainable Development: Experiences from a 4th year Chemical Engineering Course'; H. von Blottnitz; Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol 14/9-11, pp 916-923, special issue on Education for Sustainable Development, 2006.
'Damage Costs of Nitrogen Fertilizer in Europe and Their Internalization'; H. von Blottnitz, A. Rabl, D. Boiadjiev, S. Arnold and T. Taylor; Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 49(3), pp 413-433, 2006.
'A comparison of the environmental benefits of bagasse-derived electricity and fuel ethanol on a life-cycle basis'; T. Botha and H. von Blottnitz, Energy Policy, Vol 34/17, pp 2654-2661, 2006.
'A review of assessments conducted on bioethanol systems from an energy balance, CO 2, and environmental life-cycle perspective'; H. von Blottnitz and M.A. Curran; Journal of Cleaner Production, 15 (7), pp 607-619, 2007.
'Understanding Element Distribution during Primary Metal Production'; JL Broadhurst, JG Petrie, H von Blottnitz; Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy (Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section C), 116 (1), pp.1-16, 2007.
'Environmental analysis of plastic production processes: Comparing petroleum-based polypropylene and polyethylene with biologically-based poly-(FÕhydroxybutyric acid using life cycle analysis'; K.G. Harding, J.S. Dennis, H. von Blottnitz and S.T.L. Harrison; Journal of Biotechnology 130 (1), pp. 57-66, 2007.
'A material flow analysis of wood and paper in Cape Town: is there potential to redirect flows in formal and informal sectors to foster use as a renewable resource?'; C. Nissing and H. von Blottnitz; International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 6 (2), pp. 147-156, 2007.
'Investigation of Scale Economies for African Biogas Installations'; B. Amigun and H. von Blottnitz; Energy Conversion and Management, 48 (12), pp. 3090-3094, 2007.
'A Cleaner Production Assessment on the Ultra-Fine Coal Waste Generated in South Africa'; J.F. Reddick, H. von Blottnitz and B. Kothuis, SAIMM Transactions, vol. 107, No. 12, pp. 811-816, 2007.
'Commercialisation of biofuel industry in Africa: a review'; B. Amigun, R. Sigamoney and H. von Blottnitz; Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12, pp. 690-711, 2008.
'Predicting the costs of biodiesel production in Africa: Learning from Germany'; B. Amigun, F. Müller-Langer and H. von Blottnitz, Energy for Sustainable Development, Vol. XII, No. 1, March 2008.
'A Life-Cycle Comparison between Processes using either Inorganic or Biological Catalysis for the Production of Biodiesel'; K.G. Harding, S.T.L. Harrison, H. von Blottnitz and J.S. Dennis, Journal of Cleaner Production, 16/13 pp 1368-1378, 2008.
'Capacity-cost and location-cost analyses for biogas plants in Africa'; B. Amigun and H. von Blottnitz; addressing reviewers' comments for publication in Energy Policy, 2008.
'Air Quality'; H von Blottnitz, C Fedorsky and W Bray; in Environmental Management in South Africa, 3rd edition, in print, 2008.
'Cleaner Production in The South African Coal Mining Industry: A Case Study Investigation'; J F Reddick, H von Blottnitz and B Kothuis; accepted for publication subject to minor improvement, in Coal Preparation, 2008.
Renewable Energy for Sustainable Urban Development - Part I: Redefining the Concept of Energisation; C Nissing and H von Blottnitz, submitted to Energy Policy, 2008.
Renewable Energy for Sustainable Urban Development Â- Part II: Economic Model for Energisation and Integration into the Local Energy Planning Process, C Nissing and H von Blottnitz, submitted to Energy Policy, 2008.
'Development of an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan for the city of Maseru, Lesotho Â- Reflection and Challenges'; Yvonne Hansen, Christian Nissing, Brett Cohen and Harro von Blottnitz, paper in preparation for Waste Management, 2008.
'A comparison of environmental benefits of transport and electricity applications of carbohydrate derived ethanol and hydrogen'; R. Melamu and H. von Blottnitz, paper in preparation for submission to the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2008.
2. Conference papers (published in full)
'The role of environmental Life Cycle Assessment in the design of hazardous solid waste treatment processes'; H. von Blottnitz and J.G. Petrie; 11 th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management; Philadelphia; 1995.
'Development of a Method for the Identification of Eco-Efficient Improvements in the Industrial Networks of SMEs', D. van Beers, B. Kothuis, H. von Blottnitz and J. Raimondo, International Conference on Industrial Ecology and Sustainability, 22-25 September 1999, Troyes, France.
'An Investigation into the Current Developmental Status of Fuel-Cell Zero Emission Vehicles and the Potential for their Introduction in the Cape Metropol', H. von Blottnitz, National Association for Clean Air, Annual Conference, 7-8 October 1999, Cape Town.
'On the Real Costs of Waste Treatment: The Case of an Effluent Treatment Plant in the Metal Finishing Industry', H. von Blottnitz and B. Kothuis, WasteCon 2000, Somerset West, 4-7 September 2000, vol. 2, pp. 315-322.
'Disposal of chromium(III) bearing solid wastes in landfills: How safe is it in the long run?'; K. Pillay, H. von Blottnitz and J. Petersen; WasteCon 2000, Somerset West, 4-7 September 2000, vol. 2, pp. 329-336.
'Cleaner Production as a Tool to Minimise the Volumes of Solid Waste Arising in Small and Medium Enterprises in the South African Metal Finishing Industry'; C. J â®isch, B. Kothuis and H. von Blottnitz; WasteCon 2000, Somerset West, 4-7 September 2000, vol. 2, pp. 389-398.
'Selection of Waste Management Options with the Aid of Environmental Life Cycle Assessment: The Case of Used Lubricating Oil in South Africa'; B. Rwodzi and H. von Blottnitz; WasteCon 2000, Somerset West, 4-7 September 2000, vol. 2, pp.399-408.
'HFO or Used Oil, Sulphur or Lead: Results of a Life Cycle Assessment'; H. von Blottnitz; National Association for Clean Air Annual Conference, 10-12 October 2001, Port Elizabeth.
'Bio-Ethanol As Octane Enhancing Fuel Additive In Southern Africa: An Examination Of Its Â"Environmental FriendlinessÂ" From A Life Cycle Perspective', H. von Blottnitz, E. Theka and T. Botha; National Association for Clean Air Annual Conference, 23-25 October 2002, Durban.
'Green Electricity Or Fuel Ethanol? A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Two Energy Products from Sugarcane Bagasse'; T. Botha and H. von Blottnitz; SAIChE National Conference, Sun City, 3-5 September 2003.
'Design for Cleaner Technology in the South African Minerals Processing Industry'; S.M. Marr, H. von Blottnitz and Z. Mudondo; Book of Proceedings: Waste Management, Emissions & Recycling in the Metallurgical & Chemical Process Industries, Randburg, 18-19 March 2004; pp.1-10, 2004.
'Conversion of plant oils to methyl-ester fuels: Considerations for reactor design in commercial and small-scale production'; H. von Blottnitz, S.A. Sadat-Rezai and J. Vardy; 16th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2004, Prague, 22 - 26 August 2004.
'Life beyond the P&IDÂ': Engagement of 4th year Chemical Engineering Students with Business, Society and Environment'; H. von Blottnitz, International Conference on Engineering Education in Sustainable Development, Barcelona, 27-29 October 2004.
'Introducing Cleaner Production to the South African mining industry: Points of accord and of discord'; P. Dama, G. Trusler, C. Jã©sch, C Buckley and H. von Blottnitz; 2nd Conference on Sustainable Development in the Mining Industry; Aachen, 18-20 May 2005.
'A Life-Cycle Comparison between Processes using either Inorganic or Biological Catalysis for the Production of Biodiesel'; K.G. Harding, S.T.L. Harrison, H. von Blottnitz and J.S. Dennis; World Renewable Energy Congress, Aberdeen, 22-27 May 2005.
'A material flow analysis of wood & paper in Cape Town: is there potential to redirect flows in formal and informal sectors to foster use as a renewable resource?'; C. Nissing and H. von Blottnitz, presented at the 12 th International Sustainable Development Research Conference, 6-8 April 2006, Hong Kong.
'Understanding Element Distribution during Primary Metal Production'; JL Broadhurst, JG Petrie, H von Blottnitz; Green Processing 2006, 5-7 June 2006.
'Burn, Gasify, Pyrolyse or Ferment? Making sense of the many possibilities for energy from waste in South Africa'; H. von Blottnitz*, G. Austin, C. Nissing, N. Schmalbein, L. Liphoto, N. Ncwadi, A. Gets and C. Fedorsky; WasteCon06, Somerset West, 5-8 September 2006.
'Composition and Heterogeneity of MSW from Khayelitsha'; C. Brill, C. Moerdyk, C. Nissing and H. von Blottnitz; WasteCon06, Somerset West, 5-8 September 2006.
'A Cleaner Production Assessment on the Ultra-Fine Coal Waste Generated in South Africa'; J.F. Reddick, H. von Blottnitz and B. Kothuis, South African Chemical Engineering Congress, 20-22 September 2006, Durban: SAIChE. ISBN 1 86840 616 4.
'2nd Generation Bio-Energy Technology: Thoughts about Getting the Best New Developments to Work for Africa', H. von Blottnitz and A. Chakraborty, South African Chemical Engineering Congress, 20-22 September 2006, Durban: SAIChE. ISBN 1 86840 616 4.
'Life-Cycle Assessment of Industrial Biodiesel Production Using Inorganic or Biological Catalysts'; K.G. Harding, J.S. Dennis, H. von Blottnitz and S.T.L. Harrison; South African Chemical Engineering Congress, 20-22 September 2006, Durban: SAIChE. ISBN 1 86840 616 4.
'Minimization of Water Loss in the Mineral Processing Industry'; G. Mwakyusa, P. Musonge and H. von Blottnitz; South African Chemical Engineering Congress, 20-22 September 2006, Durban: SAIChE. ISBN 1 86840 616 4.
'An Investigation of Scale Economies for African Biogas Installations'; B. Amigun and H. von Blottnitz; South African Chemical Engineering Congress, 20-22 September 2006, Durban: SAIChE. ISBN 1 86840 616 4.
'Practical Complementary Options to Crude Oil Transport Fuels: A Global Perspective', J.J. Botha and H. von Blottnitz; XVI International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, Rio de Janeiro, 26-29 November 2006.
'A Preliminary Life Cycle Assessment of Combusting Low Grade Waste Paper Bricks as a Supplementary Fuel Source for Informal Microbreweries'; Petrie D, Vonk M, Hansen Y, von Blottnitz H* and C. Nissing; accepted for presentation at WasteCon, Durban October 2008.
'A Technical and Practical Evaluation of the Co-Firing of Low Grade Paper Bricks with Charcoal in Informal Microbreweries'; Petrie D, Vonk M, Hansen Y, von Blottnitz H* and C. Nissing: accepted for presentation at WasteCon, Durban October 2008.
3. Conferences presentations (published abstract)
'Life Cycle Assessment in Mineral Processing and Metallurgy'; H. von Blottnitz and J.G. Petrie; 13 th SAIMM Western Cape Seminar on Mineral Processing; 1994.
'Managing Lubricating Oil in South Africa: Two Life Cycle Perspectives'; H. von Blottnitz; Proceedings, 1st Life Cycle Management Conference, Copenhagen, 26-29 August 2001.
'Biofuels in the African Context: Understanding their Chemistry and their (Contribution to) Sustainability'; H. von Blottnitz; UNIDO-ICS Workshop on Cleaner Technologies for Sustainable Chemistry, Cape Town, 9-11 December 2002.
'Implications of Slow Atmospheric Chromium Oxidation for the Disposal of Smelter Slags and Finishing Plant Sludges'; H. von Blottnitz and J. Petersen; XXII International Mineral Processing Congress (Extended Abstract), Cape Town, September 2003.
'Life Cycle Assessment in Multi-Product Metals Refining: A Project Planning Support Tool'; H. von Blottnitz, J. Broadhurst and J.G. Petrie; XXII International Mineral Processing Congress (Extended Abstract), Cape Town, September 2003.
'Compilation, review and analysis of sets of completed LCAs in the Resources Sector:
'A first attempt at an 'LCA meta-study' on bio-ethanol systems'; H. von Blottnitz, Symposium on the Sustainable Extraction, Use and Recycling of Natural Resources, SETAC World Congress, Portland, 15-18 November 2004.
'Size Optimisation of Biomaterial Production Systems in African Settings'; B. Amigun and H. von Blottnitz; Nigerian Materials Congress, Akure, 17-19 December 2004.
'Lessons From Two Case Studies of Regional Metabolism in a Developing Country Context'; H. von Blottnitz and B. Gasson; ISIE conference, Stockholm, 12-15 June 2005.
'Investigation into the Use of Life Cycle Assessment to Provide a Guide for Reducing the Environmental Footprint of a South African Gold Producer'; N.A.J. Robinson and H. von Blottnitz, 11 th International Sustainable Development Research Conference, Helsinki, 7-8 June 2005. [Full paper exists, not yet published].
'Development of a Rapid Laboratory Predictive Test Method Using Fluidised Bed Techniques for the Determination of Oxidisability of Residual Cr (III) in Slag'; T. Maidza and H. von Blottnitz; presented at Western Cape Mineral Processing Conference, 4-5 August 2005.
'Use of Life Cycle Assessment to Provide a Guide for Reducing the Environmental Footprint of South African Mining Products'; N. Robinson & H. von Blottnitz; presented at the 1 st African LCA symposium, Nairobi, 29 August 2005.
'Nitrogen Fertilisers for Biomass Farming and in Sustainable Agrobusiness Development Â- A South African Perspective'; R. Sigamoney and H. von Blottnitz; presented at the Renewable Resources and Biorefineries Congress, Ghent, 19-21 September 2005.
'An Investigation of Scale Economies for African Biogas Installations'; B. Amigun and H.von Blottnitz; IEW conference; 26-28 June 2006, Cape Town.
'Commercialisation of biofuel industry in Africa: a review'; B. Amigun, R. Sigamoney and H. von Blottnitz; presented at the Renewable Resources & Biorefineries Conference, York, 6-8 September 2006.
'A model for 'energisation' in developing urban contexts'; C. Nissing and H. von Blottnitz, International Energy Workshop, Stanford, California, 25-27 June 2007.
'Alternative Biofuels from Crop to Wheel: How to Maximise Contributions to Sustainable Development in South Africa' H.von Blottnitz; invited presentation at the SANERI biofuels conference, Stellenbosch, 5-6 December 2007.
4. Publications in trade journals and on websites
'Restructuring Industrial Systems for Sustainable Development in a Resource-Intensive Economy. Part I: Context and Theory'. H. von Blottnitz, Chemical Technology, pp. 5-8, December 2003.
'Restructuring Industrial Systems for Sustainable Development in a Resource-Intensive Economy. Part II: Current Initiatives and Future Imperatives in South Africa'. H. von Blottnitz, Chemical Technology, pp. 5-7, June 2004.
'An emissions data set for estimation of environmental damages from large fossil-fuel fired power plants in Europe'; H. von Blottnitz and A. Rabl, discussion paper posted on the ExternE website; http://www.externe.info/.
'Fuel Bio-Ethanol in South Africa: Opportunities and Risks', H. von Blottnitz; Chemical Technology, September 2005, pp.18-19.
5. Technical reports
'Investigation Into The Potential Oxidation Of Chromium In Slag From Stainless Steel Production', H. von Blottnitz; for Columbus Stainless; April 2001.
'What to do with end-of-life batteries in Cape Town? - Identification of suitable technology'; H. von Blottnitz; Report for the City of Cape Town; 2002.
'A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of ethanol produced from molasses at Illovo Sugar Limited in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa'; E. Theka and H. von Blottnitz; Final Executive Summary; for Illovo Sugar, October 2002.
'Tools for sustainability: Development and application of an integrated framework'; A. Rabl, A. Zoughaib & H. von Blottnitz (co-ordinators); Final Technical Report to the European Commission DGXII (Research), contract number EVG3-CT-2002-80010; December 2004.
'A Case Study on Damages of Nitrogen Fertilizer Use in Agriculture and How to Internalise Such Damages'; H. von Blottnitz, A. Rabl, D. Boiadjiev, S. Arnold and T. Taylor; Final Technical Report for Work Package 4, SusTools project for the European Commission DGXII (Research), December 2004.
'Review of Biodiesel Related Activities in South Africa'; Wilson S.C., Matthew, M., Austin G. and von Blottnitz H. Report for the City of Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 76, 2005.
'Uses, Benefits, Risks and the Ultimate Fate of Nitrogen Fertilizers in Biomass Farming and Energy Conversion Systems: Literature Review And Research Proposal': R. Sigamoney and H. von Blottnitz, for Omnia Fertilizers, 2005.
'Energy Recovery from Municipal Solid Waste in South Africa'; G. Austin, A. Gets, L.E. Liphoto, C. Nissing and H. von Blottnitz; Prefeasibility Study for the Department of Science and Technology, pp.206, 2006.
6. Invited plenary presentations, commissioned expert papers and other publications
'Life Cycle Assessment of Metals: A Review in the Year of the WSSD', H. von Blottnitz and M. Stewart, Plenary Presentation, Mineral Processing 2002; 1-2 August, Cape Town, South Africa.
'Using Life Cycle Assessment to Inform Policy Relating to Energy Products from the Sugar Industry: A Review of Studies from Mauritius and South Africa'; T. Ramjeawon and H. von Blottnitz; 3 rd African Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production, Casablanca, 17-20 May 2004.
'African perspectives on tools and measures for the management of natural resources and on learning from the LCA literature'; H. von Blottnitz; Plenary Presentation at the Symposium on the Sustainable Extraction, Use and Recycling of Natural Resources within the 4 th SETAC World Congress, Portland, 15-18 November 2004.
'Background Briefing Paper for the National Sustainable Development Strategy: Solid Waste', H. von Blottnitz, for the Department of Environment Affairs and Tourism, 2005.
'Towards a Critical Mass for LCA Application in Sustainable Consumption and Production in Africa'; Summary of Proceedings of the 1st African Life Cycle Assessment Symposium; H.von Blottnitz (ed.), 29 August 2005, UNEP Headquarters, Nairobi, Kenya.
'Biofuels Research in South Africa'; invited presentation at the British Â- South African workshop on Renewable and Sustainable Energy, organized by the British High Commission, Pretoria, 21 February, 2006.
'The reality of the current socio-environmental crisis, in Cape Town, and the potential pro-job and pro-poor solutions to this crisis that could be implemented in local industry'; H. von Blottnitz; Keynote address at the Sustainability Workshop of the Institute of Packaging in South Africa (IPSA), Cape Town, 18 September 2007.
'Cleaner Production: A Guidance Document for The Mining Industry'; S. Barclay C. Jã©sch, B. Kothuis, H. von Blottnitz, S. Mzoboshe, G. Trussler, C. Buckley, A. Barker; Water Research Commission, in preparation.